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jmitose.jpg

Great Grandmater James Mitose founder of  Kosho-Ryu Kempo.

Early Karate History: Naha-Te

Naha-Te is the name of the particular type of Okinawan martial art that developed in the port town of Naha, the modern-day capital of Okinawa. The martial art that indigenously developed in Okinawa was called Te (”Hands”), and the continuous chinese influences that incorporated Chinese Boxing (Chuan Fa, nowadays known as Kung Fu) were eventually reflected by nameing the Okinawan martial arts To-De, “Chinese Hands”.

Credited for the early development of Naha-Te is Kanryo Higaonna (1853-1915). Kanryo Higaonna’s students include Chojun Miyagi (1888-1953), the founder of Goju-Ryu Karate and Kenwa Mabuni (1889-1952), the founder of Shito-Ryu Karate.

Early Karate History: Shuri-Te

Shuri-Te is the name of the particular type of Okinawan martial art that developed in the Shuri, the ancient capital of Okinawa. One of the early Okinawan masters, To-De Sakugawa (1733-1815) is credited as being one of the initial importers of Chinese martial arts to Okinawa, in particular to Shuri, where he started the development of the Shuri-Te style of Okinawan martial arts.

Sakugawa had a student named Sokon Matsumura, who in turn taught Ankoh Itosu, who was destined to become a great martial artist and teacher in the 19th century, who introduced the practice of To-De, as the Okinawan martial arts were called, to the Okinawan school system. Ankoh Itosu’s contribution to To-De was the emphasis of Kata and its practical application, called Bunkai.

Many students of Ankoh Itosu became significant figures in the early development of Karate.
Amongst Itosu’s students are Gichin Funakoshi (1867-1957), who later moved to Japan and founded
Shotokan Karate, and Kenwa Mabuni (1890-1954), combined aspects of Naha-Te and Shuri-Te, also moved to Japan, and founded Shito-Ryu Karate.

 

KEMPO/KENPO A BRIEF HISTORY


 


Maintained & updated by: Mark Urbin


The following FAQ is for the Kempo/Kenpo arts in general and is not specific to one particular Kempo/Kenpo school. Most of the history and information has a focus towards Kempo systems descending from James Mitose's Kosho-Ryu Kempo. There are other Kempo systems mentioned in this document. In most cases, throughout this FAQ, the word "Kempo" is used, though either Kempo or Kenpo could have been used. The reasoning is explained in this FAQ. Remember that this document is a "Frequently Ask Questions" list. It is not intended as in in depth study, just a starting point. Most of the URL's of sites linked in this document can be found near the end of the document. Please send any feedback, questions, complaints, etc. about this FAQ to the maintainer. Please note, that this FAQ, in no way (just in case anyone thinks it is), was not meant to be offensive and if you think it is...well...sorry! Any corrections to any information given, as well as additions, is much appreciated.

A Brief History Of Kempo

NOTE: Certain names in time are in conflict and the most common ones are used in this document.
This history is not the final word, just a starting point. Were I have found conflicts, I have tried to list all the variations, with links to sources.

The art of Kempo, also written as Kenpo, is unique as far as its history goes in two respects. It is considered, by many, as the first eclectic martial art, as well as having its founding roots stretching back to 520 AD, during the Chou Dynasty. The person who was one of the first noted catalyst of the way of Kempo, by Chinese history records, was a prince and warrior of Southern India called Bodhidharma. According to the records of the Lo-Yang temple, Bodhidharma was a Buddhist monk under the tutelage of Prajnatara and it is presumed that upon his death bed that Prajnatara requested Bodhidharma to travel to China, where he felt that the principles of Buddhism were in decline and that the knowledge of Dhyana (Zen Koans) should be known.

It is estimated that in 520 AD, during the southern dynasties that Bodhidharma entered China and traveled northward to the kingdom of Wei, where the fabled meeting with Emperor Wu of the Liang Dynasty began. This meeting is recorded, due to the intense conversation and discussion of Buddhism and Dhyana, which took place. The meeting was to no avail, his words to the worldly emperor meant nothing and, thus, sullened by his attempts, Bodhidharma left the palace of the Emperor and traveled to the Honan province, where he entered the Shaolin temple and began a martial arts history.

Bodhidharma's depression grew once he reached the famed Shaolin temple for Prajnatra's telling was true. The monks were in a ragged condition physically and mentally diminished, due to the excess amount of time the monks spent in meditation and little else. Many of the monks would often fell asleep in meditation, while others needed assistance in the basic necessities of life - so feeble was their condition.

For an unknown period of time, Bodhidharma meditated in a cave at the outskirts of the temple, seeking for a way to renew the feat of Buddha's light as well as letting the monks regain control over their lives. Upon his return, Bodhidharma instructed the monks in the courtyard, from the strong to the feeble, and began to explain and work with them in the art of Shih Pa Lo Han Sho or the 18 hands of Lo Han. These techniques which are the foundation for almost all of the martial arts, today, were never originally intended to be utilized as methods of fighting. They were a manner in which the monks could attain enlightenment, while preserving their physical health.

During the Sui period, approximately forty years or so after the death of Bodhidharma, it is told that brigands assaulted the Shaolin monastery; one of many attacks that would occur until the early twentieth century. During this first invasion, the monks attempts at defending their temple was futile, their skills were not attuned to fighting techniques.  It looked as if the temple would fall. A monk of the temple, with reference only as the "begging monk", during the last siege of the temple by the brigands, attacked several of the outlaws with an array of aggressive hand and foot techniques killing some and driving the remaining attackers away. The other monks were so inspired, by the display of this single priest, that they requested tutelage in this martial style as a means of protection. In later scripts, this fighting art was recorded as Chuan Fa or Fist Method.

Over several decades, the fighting arts of the Shaolin temple grew and, it is said that, over 400 art styles prospered, over the next several centuries. Several decades after the fight of the begging monk, a master of Chuan Fa, called Ch'ueh Taun Shang-jen, was said to have rediscovered the original Shih Pa Lo Han Sho, which had been lost for many years. Ch'ueh, over a period of time, integrated his art of Chuan Fa with that of Lo Han, increasing the total number of techniques from the original eighteen to total of seventy-two. For several years after this period, Ch'ueh traveled the country side of China promoting his art in several grueling fighting matches, until he came upon a man named Li in the province of Shensi. Li, a master of Chuan Fa as well as other martial ways (including rumors of Chin Na), traveled and trained with Ch'ueh for some time, developing the curriculum of Chuan Fa to form a total of one-hundred and seventy techniques. Furthermore, they categorized these techniques into five distinctive groups distinguished by various animals whose instinctive reactions best reflected the movements of this new Chuan Fa. Upon their return to the Shaolin temple, of which both Li and Ch'ueh belonged, they presented to the other monks, wu xing quan, the five animal form and brought to the Shaolin temple a new stage in martial arts evolution.

Over the next several centuries, the history of Chuan Fa and its advent to Kenpo/Kempo is ragged in its tales and difficult to ascertain an accurate description. What is known is that the art of Chuan Fa remained and is still practiced in China, but its teaching found its way to the Okinawian Islands, the Ryukyu kingdom, as well as to Japan. In both places, the art was referred to as Kempo or Law of the fist. Between the Sui and Ming periods (an 800 year gap), it is considered that, many a wandering monk traveled across Japan and Okinawa bringing with them a working knowledge of the art of Kempo; which explains its wide-spread distribution. The art of Chuan Fa, which translates into Kempo, would have been taught as a supplement to the daily spiritual training the monks endured. Many of the monks would often choose disciples or teach at various Buddhist temples, bringing forth the word of Buddha and the power of Chuan Fa. From this source, the art of Kempo easily could have spread among the commoners and nobles alike.

Another reason for the founding of Kempo can be seen in the numerous trips the Japanese and Okinawians made to China to learn the fabled art of Chuan Fa. Some people would disappear for many years, presumed dead by their families, only to resurface as a master of Kempo and other martial arts. One such man was named Sakugawa. Sakugawa lived in the village of Shuri on the island of Okinawa and traveled to China, during the 18th century to learn the martial secrets of the Chuan Fa masters. For many years Sakugawa had not been seen and many believe he had died in his journeys, but after much time he did return, much to the surprise of his kin. Sakugawa has learned the secrets of Chuan Fa and had become a master of some repute himself. Over many years of refinement the art Sakugawa had learned, slowly, was renamed to Shuri-te and is considered the predecessor to many forms of modern Karate.

Another member of Shuri, Shionja, also traveled to China as Sakugawa did, but on his return in 1784 brought with him a Chinese companion named Kushanku. Both men brought with them the art of Chuan Fa, which they had studied together in China and began to demonstrate it around Okinawa. It is believed that Kushaku and Shionja had the greatest influence in Okinawian Kempo styles than any other martial artist.

Unfortunately, the evolution of Kempo in Japan is just as abrupt and mysterious, although a flurry of attention to the art was brought during the reign of Hideyoshi Toyotomi's plans of conquering China. It is referred that many a samurai on their return from China, whether during or after the war, brought with them extensive knowledge of Chuan Fa and throughout the years modified it to include their own arts of Jujutsu and Aikijutsu. It is at this state, where the greatest evolution of Kempo takes place since the time of Li and Ch'ueh.

At the beginning of the seventeenth century two families, Kumamoto and Nagasaki brought knowledge of Kempo from China to Kyushu in Japan. This art was modified throughout the many years into one of it's current forms, Kosho Ryu Kempo or Old Pine Tree school. It is from here that most modern forms of Kempo are derived. In 1921, at the age of five, James Mitose was sent to Kyushu from his birthplace in Hawaii, for schooling in his ancestor's art of self-defense, called Kosho Ryu Kempo, from his uncle, a Kempo master named Choki Motobu. For fifteen years, he studied this art, which was a direct descendent of the original Chuan Fa.

There are some questions about Mr. Motobu actually training Mr. Mitose. Note the following data points:

  • They were both in Japan between 1921-1936.
  • Choki Motobu was James Mitose's uncle through marriage.
  • Both Choki Motobu and James Mitose used the same family crest.
  • They both emphasized Makiwara use (an Okinawan method, neither Japanese nor Chinese).
  • James Mitose gave Mr. Motobu a prominent picture and credit as a master of Karate-Kenpo in his first book, What is Self-Defense? Kenpo Jiu-jitsu.

Ken Warner has a good summary of the "cynical" version of James Mitose's history.

One of the theories states that around 1235, at the Shaka-In Temple, Mount Kinkai, Kumamoto, Japan, Kenpo as we know it today was first developed. This art was a combination of Shaolin Kung-fu (Ch’uan-fa), brought by a monk fleeing China who sought refuge with the Yoshida family (clan), and the family's art, which was similar to Aiki-Jujutsu. They named their system Kosho-ryu (Old Pine Tree Style).  [some material obtained from the Kenpo Exchange]

After completing his training in Japan, Mitose returned to Hawaii in 1936, and opened the "Official Self-Defense" club in a Beretania mission in Honolulu. It was here that he promoted six of his students to black belt (instructor status); Thomas Young, William Chow, Edmund Howe, Arthur Keawe, Jiro Naramura, and Paul Yamaguchi. (Note that while Mr. Mitose has awarded other certificates of rank, only these six were issued while he was the head of the Honolulu Official Self-Defense Club) It has been noted that William Chow's black belt certificate was actually signed by Thomas Young, and not James Mitose. Even though Mr. Mitose did not sign the certificate, he was the head of instructor of the school at the time. It is unlikely that Mr. Young would have signed it without Mr. Mitose's approval. When James Mitose stopped teaching in order to pursue his religious studies, he left his Hawaii Dojo in the hands of Thomas Young.

In 1934, before Mitose's return to the United States, the term Kempo-Karate was first seen in the US press. An issue of the Yoen Jiho Sha newspaper carried an advertisement of the visit of Chogun Miyagi, a famous Karateka and founder of Goju Ryu Karate-do, to the island of Hawaii. The first use of the term, here, is under speculation. Some suspect it was simply an advertising scheme, while others believe that Chogun Miyagi's Goju Ryu was actually a pure form of Kempo and that the term karate was simply more well-known.

William Chow is considered by many to be responsible for the largest leap of Kempo to the general public. William K.S. Chow studied Kempo under Mitose for several years and previously had studied his family art of Kung Fu. Chow united, like many Kempo masters before and after him, the arts of Kosho Ryu Kempo and his family Kung Fu to form a new art which would eventually be referred to as Chinese Kara-Ho Kempo Karate. In 1949, Chow had attracted a number of students to his own teachings and opened a Dojo of his own at a local YMCA. To make a distinct variation from Mitose's Kempo, Chow referred to his art as Kenpo Karate (The official romanization of the character).  Current members of Chinese Kara-Ho Kempo Karate organization have stated that Grandmaster Chow had always spelled Kempo with a 'm'... possibly doing so as to not offend the Japanese community and the Mitose Kosho. Throughout the next few decades, Chow made many innovations to the system, including the use of circular techniques of Kung Fu as well as various kata or forms.

There has been some debate over William Chow's martial arts training prior to studying Kenpo from James Mitose. The Chinese Kara-Ho Kempo Karate organization states that the history as stated above is mostly true. Will & Al Tracy put forth that William Chow's father did not know any Kung Fu.  Others, also, state that Mr. Chow had no martial arts experience prior to training in Kosho-Ryu Kempo, but trained widely in other arts, after starting Kempo.  One example of this can be seen when William Chow sent one of his brothers to learn Danzin Ryu Jujitsu in order expand the family art.  Another group puts forth that while William Chow's father was not a Shaolin Monk, he did know some Kung Fu that he taught to his son.

One of Chow's best known students was a Hawaii native named Edmund Parker. Ed Parker was one of the significant figures in the current tale of modern Kempo. In 1954, Edmund Parker earned his black belt in Chinese Kenpo (This is what William Chow was calling his art at the time). In 1964, when he held his first tournament, he became widely known to the American public.  Mr. Parker's dojo was in the Hollywood area, allowing him to teach his art to the likes of Elvis Presley, and Steve McQueen. Ed Parker further refined and defined the techniques of Kara-ho Kempo, till he perfected his American Kenpo Karate system.

Another student of William Chow was Adrian Emperado. Adrian, along with his brother Joe, were students who followed William Chow from the Mitose/Young dojo. Edmund Parker states in one of his books that the Emperado brothers were black belt instructors when he was a colored belt in Mr. Chow's dojo. Adrian Emperado was one of the founders of Kajukenbo.  There are some histories that put forth that Adrian Emperado, after receiving his Shodan from William Chow, also received an instructor's certificate from James Mitose.

From here, Kempo continues to make many twists and turns, constantly evolving into new states of being.

One of the sources for this material was American Kenpo Grandmaster Edmund Parker's book Infinite Insights into Kenpo Volume 1. That book reprints material from Koshu-Ryu Kempo Great Grandmaster James Mitose's book What is Self-Defense:Kempo-Jujitsu, which is now out of print.

A short history of Kempo :

* NOTE * Certain names and times are in conflict and the most commons ones where used in this document The art of Kempo, also written as Kenpo is unique as far as its history goes in two respects; it is considered by many the first eclectic martial art, as well as having its founding roots stretch back to 520 BC The person who was a catalyst of the way of Kempo was a prince and warrior of southern India called Bodhidharma. According to the records of the Lo-Yang temple, Bodhidharma was a Buddhist monk under the tutelage of Prajnatara and it is presumed that upon his death bed that Prajnatara requested Bodhidharma to travel to China where he felt the principles of Buddhism where in decline, and that the knowledge of dhyana (Zen koans) should be known.
It is estimated that in 520 BC during the Southern dynasties that Bodhidharma entered China and traveled northward to the kingdom of Wei where the fabled meeting with emperor Wu of the Liang dynasty began. This meeting is recorded do to the intense conversation and discussion of Buddhism and dhyana which took place. The meeting was to no avail, his words to the worldly emperor meant nothing, and thus, sullened by his attempts, Bodhidharma left the palace of the emperor and travelled to the Honan province where we entered the Shaolin temple and began a martial history.
Bodhidharmas depression grew once he reached the famed Shaolin temple for Prajnatra's telling was true. The monks where in a raged condition physically and mentally diminished do to the excess amount of time the monks spent in meditation and little else. Many of the monks would often fall asleep in meditation while others needed assistance in the basic necessities of life - so feeble was there condition.
For an unknown period of time Bodhidharma meditated in a cave at the outskirts of the temple seeking for a way to renew the feat of Buddha's light, as well as letting the monks regain control over there lives. Upon his return Bodhidharma instructed the monks into the courtyard, from the strong to the feeble and began to explain and work with them in the art of Shih Pa Lo Han Sho, or the 18 hands of Lo Han. These techniques which are the foundation for almost all martial arts today where never originally intended to be utilized as methods of fighting but where a manner in which the monks could attain enlightenment while preserving there bodies health. During the Sui period, approximately forty years or so after the death of Bodhidharma it is told that brigands assaulted the Shaolin monetary; one of many attacks that would occur until the early twentieth century. During this first invasion, the monks attempts at defending there temple where futile, there skills where not attuned to fighting techniques and it looked as if the temple would fall. A monk of the temple, with reference only as the "begging monk", during the last siege of the temple by the brigands attacked several of the outlaws with an array of aggressive hand and foot techniques, killing some and driving the remaining attackers away. The other monks where so inspired by the display of this single priest that they requested tutelage in this martial style as a means of protection. In later scripts this fighting art was recorded as Chuan Fa or Fist Method.
Over several decades the fighting arts of the Shaolin temple grew and where said to prosper over 400 arts in total over the next several centuries. Several decades after the fight of the begging monk, a master of Chuan Fa called Ch'ueh Taun Shang-jen was said to have rediscovered the original Shih Pa Lo Han Sho which had been lost for many years. Ch'ueh over a period of time integrated his art of Chuan Fa with that of Lo Han increasing the total number of techniques from the original eighteen to total of seventy-two. For several years after this period Ch'ueh traveled the country side of China promoting his art in several gruelling fighting matches until he came upon a man named Li in the province of Shensi. Li, a master of Chuan Fa as well as other martial ways (including rumors of Chin Na) traveled and trained with Ch'ueh for some time developing the curriculum of Chuan Fa to form a total of one-hundred and seventy techniques. Furthermore, they categorized these techniques into five distinctive groups distinguished by various animals who instinctive reactions best reflected the movements of this new Chuan Fa. Upon there return to the Shaolin temple of which both Li and Ch'ueh belonged they presented to the other monks wu xing quan, the five animal form and brought to the Shaolin temple a new stage in martial arts evolution.
Over the next several centuries the history of Chuan Fa and its advent to Kempo is ragged in its tales and difficult to gain accurate descriptions. What is known is that the art of Chuan Fa remained and is still practiced in China, but its teaching also found its way to Okinawian Islands and the Ryukyu kingdoms as well as Japan. In both places, the art was referred to as Kempo or Law of the fist. Between the Sui and Ming periods (an 800 year gap) it is considered that many a wandering monk traveled across Japan and Okinawa bringing with them a working knowledge of the art of Kempo which explains its wide-spread distribution. The art of Chuan Fa which translates into Kempo would have been taught as a supplement to the daily spiritual training the monks endured. Many of the monks would often choose disciples or teach at various Buddhist temples bringing forth the word of Buddha, and the power of Chuan Fa. From there the art of Kempo could easily spread among the commoners and nobles alike
Another reason for the founding in Kempo can be seen in the numerous trips the Japanese and Okinawian made to China to learn the fabled art of Chuan Fa. Some people would disappear for many years, presumed dead by there families, only to resurface as a master of Kempo and other martial arts. One such man was named Sakugawa. Sakugawa lived in the village of Shuri on the island of Okinawa and traveled to China during the 18th century to learn the martial secrets of the Chuan Fa masters. For many years Sakugawa had not been seen and many believe he had died in his journeys, but after much time he did return, much to the surprise of his kin. Sakugawa has learned the secrets of Chuan Fa and had become a master of some repute himself. Over many years of refinement the art Sakugawa had learned slowly was renamed to Shuri-te and is considered the predecessor to many forms of modern Karate.
Another member of Shuri, Shionja also traveled to ChinaChina and began to demonstrate around Okinawa. Its is believed that Kushaku and Shionja had the greatest influence in Okinawian Kempo styles than any other martial artist.
Unfortunately, the evolution of Kempo in Japan is just as abrupt and mysterious although a flurry of attention to the art was brought during the reign of Hideyoshi Toyotomi's plans of conquering China. It is referred that many a samurai on there return from China whether during or after the war brought with them extensive knowledge of Chuan Fa and throughout the years modified it to include there own arts of Jujutsu and Aikijutsu and it is at this state where the greatest evolution of Kempo takes place since the time of Li and Ch'ueh.
At the beginning of the seventeenth century two families, Kumamoto and
brought knowledge of Kempo from China to Kyushu in . This art was modified throughout many years into its current form which is referred to as Kosho ryu Kempo, or Old Pine Tree school and it is from here that most modern forms of Kempo are derived. In 1916 at the age of five, James Mitose was sent to Kyushu from his homeland in Hawai for schooling in his ancestors are of self-defense called Kosho ryu Kempo. For fifteen years he studied this art which was a direct descendent of the original Chuan Fa. After completing his training in Japan, Mitose returned to Hawaii and in 1936 opened the "Official Self-Defense" club in Beretania mission in HonoluluIn 1934, before Mitose's return to the United States, the term Kempo-Karate was first used. In an issue of Yoen Jiho Sha newspaper an advertising for the visit of Chogun Miyagi, a famous karateka and founder of Goju ryu karate do, to the island of Hawaii. The use of the two terms is under speculation. Some suspect it was simply an advertising scheme while others believe that Chogun Miyagi's Goju ryu was actually a pure form of Kempo, and that the term karate was simply more well known.
William Chow is perhaps responsible for the largest leap of Kempo to the general public. William K.S. Chow studied Kempo under Mitose for several years and previously had studied his families art of Kung Fu. Chow united, like many Kempo masters before him the arts of Kosho ryu Kempo and his family Kung fu to form a new art which would eventually be referred to as Kara-ho Kempo. In 1949, Chow had attracted a number of students to his own teachings and opened a dojo of his own at a local YMCA. To make a distinct variation from Mitose's Kempo, Chow referred to his art as Kenpo Karate. Throughout the next few decades Chow made many innovations to the system including the use of circular techniques of his Kung Fu, as well as various kata or forms based on the primary linear and circular techniques of his art.
One of Chows most flourishing students was a Hawaiian native named Edmund Parker. Ed Parker as he was known was the last highly significant figure in the current tale of modern Kempo unleashing it to the world as well as propelling it into his current form. In 1954 Edmund Parker earned his black belt in kara-ho Kempo and two years later became a household name, teaching his art to the likes of Elvis Presley, and Steve Mcqueen. Ed Parker further refined and defined the techniques of Kara-ho Kempo till he perfected his American Kenpo Karate system. Ed Parker is often referred to as the father of American Karate.
From here, Kempo and its other forms take many twists and turns, constantly evolving into new states of being.

The Direction of Kempo

With all things certain paths are given directing us on various roots to a final goal. Sometimes this goal is reached in a very short period of time, while at other times that goal is never completed by expanded by as new paths cross the original. The direction in which Kempo leads its practioners is similar to that - its goals are represented in a sphere, constantly expanding with the final goal only being the beginning of a new stage.

Kempo is a unique martial art having been founded several centuries ago in the Chinese Shaolin temple, thus bringing with it a certain air of mystery. As a martial art, Kempo is referred to as a Do. The Do is referred to in Buddhist Zen scripts as a path towards enlightenment. Lao Tzu, a priest of Taoism said "Mastering others requires force; Mastering the self requires enlightenment.." This phrases sums of the full circle of what Kempo strives towards. Although on its surface Kempo can be seen as a unique form of self-defense, hidden beneath its physical exterior are levels where characteristic centralization of mind and body form. At this level, Kempo's practioners up from a simple form of fighting to a higher level of ability - a level of enlightenment. Ying Kuchan, a Shaolin monk and master of Kempo after a lengthy period of meditation in a Zen rock garden spoke of Kempo saying "Kempo is the power of adaptability and yielding; the harmony of all things working together."
On the surface, Kempo's uniqueness lies in its comprehensive and diversified means of unarmed defense. Shaolin Kempo Karate proper is both an armed and unarmed system of combat incorporating applications in varying appearances and method. On an external level, Kempo is a no holds barred fighting system of offensive and defensive methods with equal emphasis of striking techniques with the hands and feet; immobilization and controls; projections and takedown; as well as weaponry and various spiritual and healing arts. Shaolin Kempo is a street wise defensive art that does not restrict its students in methodology. Clawing hands evolve into slashing feet. Cunning joint locks turn into devastating hip throws. Evasive blocks turn into breath closing chokes.
The possibilities are endless. The only true fighting systems are those where there are no rules applied. From the books of the Han dynasty we learn "Nothing is impossible to a willing mind." And it is from this saying that we can derive the upper principles of Shaolin Kempo. What sets Kempo apart from boxing, wrestling, and Sunday night football is an emphasis on centralization of body and mind, a concept understood by very few. Many people are quiet happy with only the surface value of Kempo taking its studies for reasons of physical health, self-defense, or a Monday night hobby. But for what level of imperfection will you settle for in yourself? If there is more to Kempo why not grasp it. Kempo tries to build a persons psychological persona as well as turning the ego self into the egoless self. The true Kempo is not a means of felling an opponent by force of hand or weapon, nor was it originally intended as a means of arms. Kempo calls for a bringing of inner peace to the self, and the universe around us. A master of Kempo is not only a master of self-defense, but a master of himself. In the end, the direction of Kempo was best described by Bruce Lee when he commented on his art of Jeet Kune Do; "To have no way as a way; To have no limitations as a limitation."

What's the Difference Between Kempo and Kenpo ?

Nothing. Actually, the only difference is in the translation of the Kanji to its English form. The word Kempo and Kempo are both pronounced the same and both mean "Law of the Fist." When the Japanese Kanji for Kempo is brought into English, either a "m" or "n" is placed in the word. Its sorta like saying "Qi" or "Chi", "Gung" or "Kung." Generally though, the more "traditional" (lightly used) forms of Kempo use the "Kempo" form, while the more non- traditional or contemporary versions use "Kenpo." William K.S. Chow was the first person to use the term Kenpo to show his break from the Mitose family Kosho ryu kempo.


What MArtial Arts Compose the Curriculum of Kempo

In general, most systems of Kempo consists of 4 primary arts which can be seen in 95% of Kempo system in both Okinawian and Japanese systems of Kempo, and consist of primarily Chinese influences.
-18 hands of Lo Han
-5 Animal Chuan Fa          
-White Crane Chin Na
-Wing Chun
-Ju-Jitsu

Other arts which can be found in Kempo schools include:
-Thai-Boxing
-Kyokushin Karate
-Sanshou Wu-Shu
-Aikido or Aikijutsu
-Sumo
-Various weapon arts


Does Kempo Use Other Weapons Other Than Hands and Feet ?


In Kempo schools, defenses against knives and clubs are seen from yellow belt and up, and are considered prime weapons in which to defend against. Kempo also teaches its students how to use weapons to increase there understanding of defense. Weapons that are taught are both Chinese and Japanese in variety and vary widely. Some schools of Kempo teach the 8' staff, while others teach Chain Whip, and sai. Weapon training often begins at the green belt level, although in some schools it is restricted to those of black belt level and higher. In most Kempo schools, the primary weapon skills taught are:

-Knife
-Stick(s)
-Half Staff (Jo) 
-6' Staff
-Sword
-Chain

Does Kempo Have Forms?

Many people think that because Kempo is a highly-directed "self-defense" art that it contains no kata or forms. This is very untrue. Kempo has many form with a notable characteristic of having both circular and linear movements as well as hard and soft techniques. Kempo forms are used to teach speed and coordination of strikes as well as movement, projections and immobilizations, and various principles of fighting. Many Kempo systems of Kempo utilized a numbering system for there kata, instead of refering them by name to make them simpler to remember. It is far easier to remember Kata #3 than Naihanci-dai. The American Kenpo system utilizes the terminoly of Long Form # and Short Form # for many of there kata (i.e. Long Form 1). In such systems, often in the advanced levels, the forms take on names, such as Dragon-Tiger Form, Statue of the White Crane,etc. Another interesting thing to note is the use of the Pinan forms in many systems as well as common Okinawian, Chinease, and or Japanese forms.

Similarities Between Kempo and Other Arts


Kempo and other martial arts have various simularities in technique and principle, primarily because of the diverse and eclectic background of Kempo.
Tae Kwon Do and Kempo
Many of the aerial and spinning kicks of TKD have been brought to Kempo in the recent times often used primarily in "sparring situations." Certain jumping and spinning kicks where inherit in the Kempo system such as the Jumping Front, Side, Back and Roundhouse kicks, as well as spinning back, and crescent kicks.
Karate and Kempo
Karate and Kempo share the closet similarities in techniques do to there similar backgrounds. It is believed by many that Karate has its origins as an offshoot of Kempo. 95% of all Karate techniques if not more can be found in the Kempo systems.
Jujutsu and Kempo
Many of Kempo's immobilization and projection techniques arrived from the Japanese Jujutsu. The various loin throws, shoulder and hip projections, as well as sweeps are a direct inheritance of Jujutsu, although Kempo does not contain as wide an array or extensively developed series of throws as Jujutsu.
Aikijutsu and Kempo
In the last few years, many Aikido and Aikijutsu techniques have found there way into the Kempo art, gracing the study of Chin na with new principles and ideas. The most common techniques are Shiho nage, Irimi nage, as well as en-no-irimi projections.
Kung Fu and Kempo
Although Kempo was originally a "kung" style, it has over the years thrown away many of its Chinese aspects for a more Japanese "hard style" approach. Still, many soft techniques can still be seen in Kempo, primarily the five animal techniques, chin na, and weapon skills.

Kempo's Speed Striking


An often interesting topic is Kempos "speed striking" techniques. The speed striking technique is primarily for building up the hand speed of the Kempo student which will eventually translate into combat effective speed of strikes in a confrontation. A good example of speed striking is seen throughout the move "The Perfect Weapon", and is a key training and fighting method. A Kempo student tries to build his reaction speed to a point where 10 or more strikes can be applied in a few seconds. for more info. please click on the link at the bottom of this page.

www.kenpojoe.com/

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 Great Grandmaster James Mitose founder of Kosho Shorie ryu Kempo

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 Great Grandmaster William K.S.Chow founder of Kara Ho Kempo

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Grandmaster Ed Parker founder of American Kenpo

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Sijo Adriano D. Emperado founder of Kajukenbo

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Grandmaster Victor ' Sonny ' Gascon founder of Karazenpo Go Shinjitsu

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Great Grandmaster George Pasere founder of New England Kempo / Kenpo Karazenpo

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Grandmaster Prof. Nick Cerio founder of Nick Cerio's Kenpo

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Grandmaster Dr. Daniel K. Pai founder of Pai Lum Pai

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Grandmaster Shunshin William R. Gregory founder of Kajukenpo /  Pai Lum

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Hanshi Prof. Larry S.L. Martin founder of Shoju-kempo ryu